Vol.29, No.03. 2018
Table of Contents
Identification of optical auroras caused by mantle precipitation with the aid of particle observations from DMSP satellites
Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID:
View: HTML | PDF (0 K) | ESM
Vol. 29, Issue 1, pp. 0-0 (2018) •
Particle observations of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) show that discrete auroral structures commonly exist in the region of the plasma mantle, but the optical features of the aurora generated by particles from the plasma mantle (called ‘mantle aurora’ in this paper) have not been established. A comparison of 7-year optical auroral observations made at the Yellow River Station with conjugate particle observations obtained from the DMSP confirm that mantle auroras have common features and can be clearly identified from all-sky imager observations. The mantle auroras normally present as sporadic and weak auroral structures split poleward of the dayside auroral oval. They are observed in both the green and red lines with the intensity of the red line being greater than that of the green line. In this paper, we illustrate typical mantle auroras and provide statistics on 55 mantle aurora cases that are confirmed by particle observation by the DMSP. Statistical results show that the occurrence of the mantle aurora has no clear dependence on the IMF By and Bz conditions, but the motion of the mantle aurora strongly depends on the IMF By, which indicates that the generation of the mantle aurora is intimately related to the dayside magnetopause reconnection. With the fundamental criteria for distinguishing the mantle aurora presented in this paper, we will be able to independently identify the mantle auroras from ground optical observations. This will allow us to investigate the physical processes that occur in the plasma mantle by monitoring the evolution of the auroral forms.
1 State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 20092, China; 2 SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136, China
Cowley S W H, Southwood D J, Saunders M A. 1983. Interpretation of magnetic field perturbations in the Earth’s magnetopause boundary layers. Planet Space Sci, 31(11): 1237-1258.
Fasel G. 1995. Dayside poleward moving auroral forms: A statistical study. J Geophys Res, 100: 11891-11906.
Frey H U, Immel T J, Lu G, et al. 2003. Properties of localized, high latitude, dayside aurora. J Geophys Res, 108(A4): 8008, doi:10.1029/2002JA009332.
Frey H U, Østgaard N, Immel T J, et al. 2004. Seasonal dependence of localized, high-latitude dayside aurora (HiLDA). J Geophys Res, 109: A04303, doi:10.1029/2003JA010293.
Han D S, Chen X C, Liu J J, et al. 2015. An extensive survey of dayside diffuse aurora based on optical observations at Yellow River Station. J Geophys Res-Space, 120(9): 7447-7465, doi:10.1002/2015ja021699.
Han D S, Hietala H, Chen X C, et al. 2017. Observational properties of dayside throat aurora and implications on the possible generation mechanisms. J Geophys Res-Space, 122(2): 1853-1870, doi:10.1002/2016ja023394.
Hu Z J, Yang H, Huang D, et al. 2009. Synoptic distribution of dayside aurora: Multiple-wavelength all-sky observation at Yellow River Station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phy, 71(8): 794-804, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.02.010.
Iijima T, Potemra T A. 1976. Field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp observed by Triad. J Geophys Res, 81: 5971-5979.
Kamide Y, Rostoker G. 1977. The spatial relationship of field-aligned currents and auroral electrojets to the distributions of nightside auroras. J Geophys Res, 82: 5589-5608.
Meng C I, Akasofu S I. 1983. Electron precipitation equatorward of the auroral oval and the mantle aurora in the midday sector. Planet Space Sci, 31: 889-899.
Moen J, Evans D, Carlson H C, et al. 1996. Dayside moving auroral transients related to LLBL dynamics. Geophys Res Lett, 23(22): 3247-3250, doi:10.1029/96gl02766.
Murphree J S, Elphinstone R D, Hearn D, et al. 1990. Large-scale high-latitude dayside auroral emissions. J Geophys Res, 95: 2345-2354.
Newell P T, Ruohoniemi J M, Meng C I. 2004. Maps of precipitation by source region, binned by IMF, with inertial convection streamlines. J Geophys Res, 109(A10), doi:10.1029/2004ja010499.
Newell P T, Wing S, Meng C I, et al. 1991a. The auroral oval position, structure, and intensity of precipitation from 1984 onward: an automated on-line data base. J Geophys Res, 96: 5877-5882.
Newell P T, Burke W J, Meng C I, et al. 1991b. Identification and observations of the plasma mantle at low altitude. J Geophys Res, 96: 35-45.
Rosenbauer H H, Gnmwaldt M D, Montgomery G, et al. 1975. Heos 2 Plasma observations in the distant polar magnetosphere: The plasma mantle. J Geophys Res, 80: 2723-2737.
Sandholt P E, F Denig W, Farrugia C J, et al. 2002. Auroral structure at the cusp equatorward boundary: Relationship with the electron edge of low-latitude boundary layer precipitation. J Geophys Res, 107(A9): 1235, doi:10.1029/2001ja005081.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J. 2007a. Poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) revisited: responses of aurorae, plasma convection and Birkeland currents in the pre- and postnoon sectors under positive and negative IMF By conditions. Ann Geophys, 25: 1629-1652.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J. 2007b. Role of poleward moving auroral forms in the dawn-dusk auroral precipitation asymmetries induced by IMF By. J Geophys Res, 112, A04203, doi:10.1029/2006JA011952.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Denig W F. 2004. Dayside aurora and the role of IMF |By|/|Bz|: Detailed morphology and response to magnetopause reconnection. Ann Geophys, 22, 613.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Moen J, et al. 1998a. A classification of dayside auroral forms and activities as a function of interplanetary magnetic field orientation. J Geophys Res, 103: 23325-23346.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Moen J, et al. 1998b. Dayside auroral configurations: Responses to southward and northward rotations of the interplanetary magnetic field. J Geophys Res, 103, 20,279.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Cowley S W H. 1998c. Pulsating cusp aurora for northward interplanetary magnetic field. J Geophys Res, 103, 26: 507.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Stauning P, et al. 1996a. Cusp/cleft auroral forms and activities in relation to ionospheric convection: Responses to specific changes in solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions. J Geophys Res, 101: 5003.
Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Oieroset M, et al. 1996b. Auroral signature of lobe reconnection. Geophys Res Lett, 23: 1725.
Sandholt P E, Moen J, Rudland A, et al. 1993. Auroral event sequences at the dayside polar cap boundary for positive and negative interplanetary magnetic field By. J Geophys Res, 98: 7737.
Sandholt P E, Newell P T. 1992. Ground and satellite observations of an auroral event at the cusp/cleft equatorward boundary. J Geophys Res, 97(A6): 8685-8691.
Sandholt P E, Deehr C S, Egeland A, et al. 1986. Signatures in the dayside aurora of plasma transfer from the magnetosheath. J Geophys Res, 91, 10: 063.
Sandford B P. 1964. Aurora and airglow intensity variations with time and magnetic activity at southern high latitudes. J Atomos Terr Phys, 26: 749-769.
Yang H, Sato N, Makita K, et al. 2000. Synoptic observations of auroras along the postnoon oval: a survey with all-sky TV observations at Zhongshan, Antarctica. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phy, 62(9): 787-797, doi:10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00054-7.