Investigation of the Arctic LandFast Sea Ice (LFSI) from a perspective of cryosphere physics: an overview
ZHAI Mengxi1, Matti LEPPÄRANTA 2, Bin CHENG3, LEI Ruibo1*, ZHANG Fanyi1
1 MNR Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, 200136, China;
2 University of Helsinki, Helsinki Fi-00014, Finland;
3 Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki Fi-00101, Finland
Abstract: Landfast sea ice (LFSI) is a critical component of the Arctic sea ice cover, and is undergoing changes with the Arctic climate amplification. Located in the coastal area, LFSI is of great significance to the physical and ecological system of the Arctic Shelf and the sociology of indigenous peoples. This study provides an overview of LFSI from a perspective of cryosphere physics. Locally, LFSI is fastened by four mechanisms, and thermodynamic process dominates its evolution, thus can indicate the local climate change to a high extent. General dynamic processes prior to the formation of LFSI, as well as dynamic changes during LFSI freeze-up and breakup are introduced. Overall, the Arctic LFSI is shrinking in season duration, ice thickness, and ice extent, showing different trend in different seas, and therefore, causing environmental and climatic impacts. An improved coordinating mechanism of Arctic LFSI observation is needed with a unified observation network supported by the cooperation between scientists and indigenous peoples, as well as a better application of remote sensing data to acquire detailed LFSI cryosphere physical parameters, hence revolving both its annual cycle and long-term changes. Currently, the physical mechanisms of LFSI seasonal changes, and their climatic and ecological implications are still not through understand. Integrated investigations combining in situ measurements, satellite remote sensing and numerical modeling is a useful approach to clarify these issues.
Keywords: landfast sea ice, Arctic Ocean, remote sensing, mass balance